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ICO Exams Application Form for Standard Examinations

ICO Exams Application Form for Basic Science, Optics & Refraction, and Clinical Sciences Application Form 2018 More »

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History of Ophthlamology

View a video on the History of Ophthalmology on the International Council of Ophthalmology YouTube Channel:… More »

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Learning Document of the ICO Task Force on Uncorrected Refractive Errors

The ICO Task Force on Uncorrected Refractive Errors and School Eye Health was formed in 2007 to strengthen the involvement of… More »

Topic Subspecialty Rating Date ICO Member Resource Name & Description Author

Advocacy/Vision 2020

Diabetic Eye Care

not yet rated March 16, 2017 Diabetic Retinopathy: A Position Statement by the American Diabetes Association

Diabetic retinopathy diagnostic assessment and treatment options have improved dramatically since the 2002 American Diabetes Association Position Statement. These improvements include the widespread adoption of optical coherence tomography to assess retinal thickness and intraretinal pathology and wide-field fundus photography to reveal clinically silent microvascular lesions. Treatment of diabetic macular edema is now achieved by intravitreous injection of anti–vascular endothelial growth factor agents, and the same drugs are now used for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Improvements in medications and devices for the systemic therapy of diabetes have also improved the ability of patients to optimize their metabolic control. This Position Statement incorporates these recent developments for the use of physicians and patients.


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American Diabetes Association

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