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ICO Exams Instructions for Candidates and Syllabus: Advanced

Instructions for Candidates and Syllabus for Advanced Exam. Download the syllabus.  More »

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ICO Exams Instruction Book - Optics, Refraction and Instruments

Instruction book for the ICO's Optics, Refraction and Instruments Examinations. More »

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Learning Document of the ICO Task Force on Uncorrected Refractive Errors

The ICO Task Force on Uncorrected Refractive Errors and School Eye Health was formed in 2007 to strengthen the involvement of… More »

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not yet rated December 13, 2017 Cataract surgery and environmental sustainability: Waste and lifecycle assessment of phacoemulsification at a private healthcare facility

Aravind Eye Care System in southern India generates 250 grams of waste per phacoemulsification and nearly 6 kilograms of carbon dioxide-equivalents in greenhouse gases. This is approximately 5% of the United Kingdom's phaco carbon footprint with comparable outcomes. A majority of Aravind's lifecycle environmental emissions occur in the sterilization process of reusable instruments because their surgical system uses largely reusable instruments and materials. Electricity use in the operating room and the Central Sterile Services Department (CSSD) accounts for 10% to 25% of most environmental emissions.

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Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery

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